An ALPHABETICAL LIST
of PLANTS, seen by Dr. ROXBURGH
growing on the Island of St. Helena, in 1813-14.
I. means indigenous ; E. exotic. Several of the most conspicuous of the undetermined species are briefly described ; and Doctor Roxburgh's names are distinguished by the letter R.
|E.||ABRUS precatorius. Willd. 3. p. 911. 1025.|
|I.||ACALYPHA rubra. R. Red acalypha, or string-tree of the islanders.|
Arboreous. Peduncles axillary and between the leaves : one or more female flowers near the base, the rest a long, pendulous filiform, glomerate male spike : involucres cuculate, intire. Leaves petioled, ovate, crenate, 3-nerved.
A beautiful small tree, a native of elevated parts of the south face of Diana's peak, and called string-tree by the natives on account of its numerous beautiful red male spikes, which hang in great profusion from every twig. Ultimate branches tubercled with the scars of the fallen leaves ; above, where the leaves remain coloured red and smooth : the petioles, nerves, and veins are also red and smooth.
|E.||ACER Pseudo-Platanus. Willd. 4, p. 983. Common maple or sycamore tree.|
|E.||ACHYRANTHES aspera. Willd. 1. p. 1191. A weed in gardens.|
|I.||ACROSTICHUM bifurcatum. Willd. 5, p. 114.|
A very delicate, small, beautiful smooth species, growing in crowded tufts to about the height of 6 inches in the moist shaded fissures of the rocks about Diana's peak, &c.
|I.||ACROSTICHUM lanceolaturn. R.|
Stipes ramentaceous : fronds simple, lanceolar, strongly veined, intire : the fertile longer stiped. Fructifications occupy the whole of the inferior surface.
|E.||ÆSCHYNOMENE Sesban, and grandiflora.|
|E.||AGAPANTHUS umbellatus. Willd. 2, p. 47.|
|E.||AGAVE tuberosa Linn. Yucca superba. R.|
|E.||——— lurida Linn. used for fences.|
|I.||AGROSTIS purpurascens. Willd. 1. p. 375. Purple bent grass.|
Indigenous on the hills of St. Helena, where it grows to be from 2 to 3 feet high, perfectly erect, Very naked of leaves, as they are not only few in number but short and very slender. The inflorescence a long slender panicle composed of numerous, small, simple or compound appressed branches, crowded with numerous, short-pedicelled, smooth flowers. Calycine valves unequal, scarce half the length of the corol, which has its two valves nearly equal and rather acute ; but nothing like an awn either here or to the calyx.
|AGROSTIS lenta. Linn. Forked bent-grass.|
AGROSTIS stellata, see Panicum dactylon, and compare with Agrostis linearis, Retz. Obs. 4. p. 19. Linear-leaved agrostis, or wire-grass.
|E.||ALEURITES triloba. Willd. 4. 590. Three-lobed Aleurites.|
ALLIUM cepa, Porum, ascalonicum, and of sativum 2 varieties. Onion, leek, shallot, and garlick.
|E.||ALOE perfoliata, two or three varieties in gardens.|
|E.||——— spicata and 3 or 4 undetermined species, all exotics.|
|I.||ALOPEGURUS paniculatus, R.|
|E.||ALTHÆA rosea. Willd. 3. 773. Holly-hock.|
|E.||AMARANTHUS Blitum. Willd. 4. 387. A weed in gardens.|
|E.||——— candatus and tricolor, cultivated for ornament.|
|E.||AMARYLLIS Belladonna. Willd. 2. 54. Belladonna-lily.|
|E.||——— formosissima. Willd. 2. 52. Jacobea-lily.|
AMYGDALUS Persica. Willd. 2. 982. Peach, 2 or 3 varieties, and almond ; but the latter does not succeed here : whereas the peaches grow luxuriantly, and are productive.
|E.||ANAGALLIS arvensis, three varieties, blue red and white.|
|E.||ANDROPOGON Schoenanthus, or lemon-grass ; cultivated in gardens.|
|E.||ANNONA muricata. In Major Hudson's garden only.|
|E.||——— Cherimoya. In the same garden.|
|E.||——— squamosa. In but few gardens, and scarce. Custard apple.|
|E.||——— reticulata. Bullock's heart.|
|E.||ANGELICA bracteata. R. Bracted-Angelica.|
Leaves pinnate ; floral ternate ; leaflets petiol-clasping subcordate, 3-7-nerved, finely laciniate-serrate.
Angelica the vernacular name. It grows to be a stout, erect perennial, of 8-12 feet in height, with columnar, fistulous, smooth, bright green stem and branches. Leaves sparse, in some parts crowded, unequally pinnate, those next the umbels from quinate-palmate to 3-lobed : leaflets of the inferior larger leaves from 4 to 12 pair, opposite, closely embracing the smooth, green columnar petiole, cordate, nerved, smooth, finely laciniateserrate ; each serrature ends in a green bristle : at the base of each petiole a pair of large, simple, or compound, suborbicular bractes, and generally a single one between the leaflets, and all subulate-serrate, like them. Umbels terminal, numerous, compound, subglobular, many rayed. Involucre and involucells of 6-10 broad-lanceolate leaflets each. Flowers numerous, small, white but turn pink by age. Petals subequal, oval and oblong, incurved. Stamina unequal : anthers purple. Styles short, erect. Receptacles naked.
|E.||ANTHOLYZA æthiopica. Linn. Flag-leaved autholyza.|
|E.||ANTHOXANTHUM odoratum. Willd. 1. 150. Sweet-scented vernal-grass.|
|E.||APIUM petroselinum. Willd. 1. 1475. Parsley, and graveolens, or smallage.|
|E.||ARGEMONE mexicana, the most common weed on the island.|
|E.||ARTEMESIA absinthium, wormwood.|
ARUM Colocasia. Willd. 4, 481. St. Helena Yam ; of this there are several varieties, but the white is the sort cultivated.
|E.||ASCLEPLAS fruticosa. Willd. 1. 1271. Shrubby Asclepias.|
|E.||——— curassavica. Willd. 1. 1266. Bastard lpecacuanha.|
|I.||ASPIDIUM riparium. Willd. 5. p. 250.|
Stipes villous, flat above. Fronds oblong, bipinnatified : pinnæ linear : segments linguiform, or falcate, and deeply divided. Spots in one crowded row a little removed from the margin : involucres reniform.
Found plenty over the south side of the mountains immediately above Major Seal's in Sandy Bay, where it grows in tufts to be from 2 to 4 feet high.
|I.||ASPIDIUM pulchrum. Willd. 5. p. 253?|
Base of the stipes and tuberous like runners chaffy, the rest brown and smooth. Fronds ovate-oblong, firm, subbipinnate : pinnæ opposite, generally pinnatifid : segments oblong, obtuse, subcrenate. Spots generally one, rarely 2 or 3 to each segment of the pinnæ : involucres reniform.
A small (6-12 inch) plant of a hard texture, but not glossy, with the stipes about as long as the fronds : a native of Diana's Peak.
|I.||ASPIDIUM vestitum. Willd. 5. p. 261.|
Stipes and divisions amply clothed with large brown soft scales.
Fronds oblong, bipinnate : leaflets linguiform, obtuse, crenate. Grows on Diana's Peak to be about two feet high.
|I.||ASPIDIUM Capense. Willd. 5. p. 267.|
Stipes green and channelled. Fronds ovate, smooth, bipinnate : pinnæ opposite, apices ensiform and sharply serrate ; pinnulæ from serrate to pinnatifid, with obtuse dentate apices. Spots in two rows a little removed from the nerve : involucres reniform,
A native of Diana's Peak, where it grows to be from 20 to 30 inches high : is of a soft delicate texture : the spots numerous and very large.
|I.||ASPIDIUM coriaceum. Willd. 5. p. 268.|
Stipes as long as the oppositely bipinnate, ovate fronds. Leaflets linguiform, crenate-serrate, and pinnatifed. Spots in one line half way between the nerve and margin ; involucres reniform.
Is also a native of the south face of Sandy Bay range of mountains, where it rises to the height of about 2 feet, and generally amongst bushes. It differs from A. capense in little else than the shape of the apices of the pinnæ, and the single row of spots, whereas in that species it is double.
|I.||ASPLENIUM tenellum. R.|
Stipes polished. Fronds linear recurved, apices rooting, alternately pinnate : leaflets numerous, obliquely linguiform, obtuse crenate, anterior side of the base enlarged, posterior attenuate.
A pretty, small (6-8 inches) species, with the habit of Adiantum caudatum, found indigenous on the tops of the high mountains in the centre of the Island.
|I.||ASPLENIUM falcatum. Brown's Prodrom. p. 150.|
Stipes as long as the lanceolate, alternately-pinnate, firm, smooth fronds, 3-sided, 3-grooved, pretty smooth and black. Leaflets short-petioled, falcate-lanceolate, lobate ; lobes and fine ensiform apices serrate.
A most beautiful species, growing in small tufts on the top of Sandy Bay ridge, to be about 2 feet high. Compare with A. falcatum. Willd. 5. 325 : it agrees pretty well with his definition.
|I.||ASPLENIUM præmorsum. Willd. 5. p. 339.|
|I.||ASPLENIUM filamentosum. R.|
Stipes longer than the thin, ovate, alternately-tripinnatifed frond, channelled, base clothed with long, black chaffy scales : pinnæ remote ; leaflets pinnatifed ; segments short-linguiform, serrulate, obtuse.
A stout species of from 2 to 6 feet high ; a native of the South face of Diana's Peak.
|I.||ASTER glutinosus. R. (compare with hirtus. Willd. 3. 2016.)|
Shrubby, tender parts woolly. Leaves from cuneate to spatulate. apices rounded, and grossly serrate, fleshy, rugose with very prominent veins underneath. Peduncles terminal, ultimately axillary subsolitary, length of, or longer than the leaves, one-flowered.
A native of the most naked, barren rocks on the south side of the Island, where it grows to be a middling sized shrub. The clammy leaves are fragrant. Bractes scattered over the long clammy peduncles, and of a long-clavate shape. The flowers are large, pure white. Goats are said to be fond of it, and while browsing on it, the clammy exudation thereof is collected on their beards. (See history of Mastich.)
|E.||ATRIPLEX triangularis. Willd. 4. 963. Triangular Atriplex.|
|E.||ATROPA physaloides. Linn. Blue-flowered Atropa.|
|E.||BAMBUSA arundinacea. Willd. 2. 245. Common Bamboo.|
|E.||BARRINGTONIA speciosa. Willd. 3. 345. Laurel-leaved Barringtonia.|
|BEATSONIA, R. Pentandria Monogynia.|
Calyx 5-toothed. Corol 5-petalled, campanulate. Germ
superior, 1-celled, containing many ovula attached to the two opposite sides
of the cell. Style bifid. Stigmas globular. Capsule 1-celled,
2-valved. Seeds a few.
Named in honour of Colonel Alexander Beatson, Governor of St. Helena.
|I.||BEATSONIA portulacifolia. R.|
St. Helena Tea the vernacular name on that island, where it grows on the naked rocky mountains and hills on the south side, to be a very ramous shrub, of a middling size. Trunk short, soon dividing into numerous branches, crowded with innumerable, small, delicate, villous, subarticulate, brittle ramuli. Bark of the old ligneous parts, dark brown and pretty smooth. Leaves opposite subrotund, fleshy, convex and smooth above, hollow underneath : size of a large pin's head, &c., almost exactly as in Portulaca quadrifida, even to the quatern floral-leaves. Petioles short, stem-clasping. Flowers terminal, solitary, sessile in the bosom of the 4 floral leaves. Calyx subcylindric, 5-grooved, 5-toothed, withering. Corol 5-petalled, campanulate, large for the size of the foliage, pure white, and like the calyx, withering. Filaments 5, nearly as long as the petals, and with them alternately inserted into the receptacle ; at the base broad, and seem united there but are not. Anthers yellow. Germ superior, ovate, smooth, one-celled, and contains several ovula attached to the lower half of two opposite, parietal receptacles. Style length of the stamina, apex-bifid. Stigmas globular. Capsule ovate, hid in the withered calyx and corol, 1-celled, 2-valved, opening from the apex. Seeds few, attached as in the germ.
BETA vulgaris and sicla. Willd. 1. 1303. Red and green Beet and Mangel Wurzel belong to the first, and the common white Beet to the second.
|I.||BIDENS arborea. R.|
Arboreous. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong-ventricose. serrate. Panicles terminal, brachiate, corymbose.
White-wood-cabbage tree the vernacular name on St. Helena, where it grows on the south face of Diana's Peak to be a pretty large tree, with straight upright trunk, and dark-coloured, pretty smooth bark ; the young shoots are with much short brown hair. Leaves from oval to oblong, very equally gland serrate, smooth above, somewhat villous underneath. Stipules none. Panicles terminal while young in flower, large, subcorymhose, pretty well crowded with opposite, hairy ramifications and their subdivisions. Flowers conical. Calyx scarce calycled, composed of a very few leaflets, and most of them embrace a floret like the scales of the receptacle. Seeds 4-sided, strigose particularly the 4 angles, each crowned with two, very short, scabrous aristæ, which are about as long as the tubes of the florets.
BOERHAAVIA repanda. Willd. 1. 22. is common amongst the rocks in James's Valley, &c.
|E.||BORAGO zeylanica. Linn, Ceylon Borage.|
|E.||BRASSICA oleracea. Willd. The common useful species and varieties of cabbage.|
|E.||BROWALLIA elata. Willd. 3. 339.|
|E.||BUXUS sempervirens. Willd. 3. 337. Common Box-tree.|
|E.||CACTUS Opuntia. Linn. Common Cactus.|
|E.||——— coccinellifera. Linn. Cochineal fig.|
|E.||——— chinensis. R. China Cactus.|
|E.||CALLA æthiopica. Willd. 2. 289. Æthiopic Calla.|
|E.||CAMELLIA japonica ; two or three varieties.|
|E.||CANNA indica, three or four varieties. See Willd. 1. 3.|
|E.||CANNABIS saliva. Willd. 4. 763. Common hemp.|
|E.||CALENDULA Tragus. Linn.|
|E.||——— officinalis. Common Marygold.|
|E.||CAPSICUM cerasiforme. Linn. Cherry-pepper.|
|E.||——— grossum. Linn. Bell-pepper.|
|E.||——— frutescens. Linn. Shrubby pepper.|
|I.||CAREX pedunculata. Willd. 4. 222.|
Spikes androidnous, pedicelled, erect, cylindric, alternate on a terminal rachis : male flowers (when present) under the female : scales striated, apices serrate-dentate : corol striated. Style trifid, seed triangularly obovate.
A native of the south face of Diana's Peak, under the shade of trees, where kept moist by the fogs which rest on the Peak. It grows in small tufts to about the height of three feet when in flower. Radical leaves numerous, very long striated, keeled, hard and smooth : cauline similar but smaller : culms 3-sided, smooth, leafy.
|E.||CASSIA microphylla. Willd. 2. 529.|
|E.||CASSIA aurea. R.|
|E.||——— aluta. Willd. 2. 523.|
|E.||——— esculenta. R.|
|E.||——— sophera. Willd. 2. 525.|
|E.||CASTANEA vesca. Willd. 4, 460. Chesnut.|
|E.||CELSIA Arcturus. Willd. 3. 280.|
|E.||CENTAUREA Moschata. Willd. 3. 227. Sweet Sultan.|
|I.||CHEILANTHES tenuifolia. Brown's Prodromus, 163.|
Found on Diana's Peak, where it grows in large masses to be from 6 to 18 inches high, with long, slender, crooked, dark-coloured (brownish black,) stipe and divisions. Compare with Adiantum assimile of the same work.
|E.||CHEIRANTHUS Cheiri. Willd. 3. 516. Wall-flower.|
|E.||——— incanus. Willd. 3. 520. Gilly-flower, or Stocks, several varieties.|
|E.||——— odoratissimus. Willd. 3. 524. Persian Stock.|
|E.||CHENOPODIUM ambrosioides. Linn. Mexican Chenopodium.|
|E.||——— album and viride. Linn. White and green Chenopodium.|
CICHORIUM Intybus. Willd. 3. 1628. Wild Succory and Endiva, Garden Succory, or endive.
|E.||CICER arietinum. Willd. 3. 113. Chick-pea.|
|E.||CITRUS. Willd. 3. 1436, including the lemon, citron, and orange, with varieties.|
|E.||CLERODENDRUM inerme. Gaert. Volameria. Willd. 3. 383.|
|E.||CLITORIA ternatea. Linn.|
|E.||CLUYTIA pulchella. Willd. 4. 381. A Cape flowering shrub.|
COCOS nucifera. Willd. 4. 400. Coco-nut palm : very few of them, and they do not thrive.
COFFEA arabica. In Mr. Alexander's garden in Sandy Bay, are some of the finest coffee trees I ever saw, and at the same time (February) in every stage from the blossom to the ripe berry.
|E.||CONCHIUM gibbosum of Dr. E. Smith, is Hakea gibbosa of Brown.|
|I.||CONYZA gummifera. R.|
Arboreous. Leaves sparse, approximate, subsessile but not decurrent, from lanceolar to cuneate-oblong, subserrate, soft, rugose and more or less woolly underneath. Peduncles axillary, solitary, drooping, one-flowered : flowers globular.
Gum-wood-tree of the islanders : it grows on the more elevated land over the interior parts, to be a tree of considerable size, with short crooked trunk and still more crooked spreading branches and ditrichotomous branchlets. Bark of the trunk and large branches a deeper or lighter brown, and smooth except for the numerous scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves crowded about the ends of the branchlets, often broad-lanceolar particularly in old trees ; while young, gummy and more hoary : length, 2-4 inches, by 1/4 of an inch to one and a half broad.
|I.||CONYZA robusta. R.|
Leaves subsessile (not decurrent,) lanceolar, crenate-dentate, rugose. Peduncies axillary, solitary, length of the leaves, one-flowered.
Bastard-gum tree the vernacular name on St. Helena, where it grows to be a tree very similar to the last, and possessed of nearly the same qualities. The dwarfish, very crooked antique habit of those trees, makes them very conspicuous. The bark on the old parts is very thick and deeply cracked ; the branchlets generally dichotomous, and marked with the scars of the fallen leaves. The leaves while young hoary with soft pubescence ; the flowers few but large and white.
|CONYZA rugosa. Aiton's Kew. 3. 184. See Solidago cuneifolia.|
CONVOLVULUS brasiliensis. Willd. 1. 877. and another undetermined indigenous species.
|E.||——— purpureus. Willd. 1. 352. Convolvulus major.|
|E.||——— Batatas. Willd. 1. 853. Sweet Potatoe, the red and white varieties.|
|E.||COOKIA punctata. Willd. 2. 558. Wampee of the Chinese.|
|E.||CORDIA macrophylla. R. A large tree from Bengal.|
|E.||——— campanulata. R. A small tree from the Moluccas and South Sea Islands.|
|COTULA coronopifolia. Willd. 3. 2167. Pagoda plant of the islanders.|
|E.||CRASSULA cultrata. Willd. 1. 1552. Sharp-leaved Crassula.|
|E.||——— obliqua. Willd. 1. 1553. Oblique-leaved.|
CRINUM foxicarium. R. and two or three other species which were not seen in blossom by Dr. Roxburgh.
|E.||CROTALARIA refusa. Linn. Retuse-leaved Crotolaria.|
|E.||——— laburnifolia. Linn Laburnum-leaved.|
|E.||——— incanescens. Linn. Hoary.|
|E.||CROTON sebiferum. Linn. Tallow-tree of China.|
|E.||CUCURBITA lagenaria. Willd. 4. 616. Bottle-gourd.|
|E.||CUNONIA capensis. Willd. 2. 634.|
|E.||CURTISIA faginea. Willd. 1. 687 . Hassagay-tree.|
|E.||CUPRESSUS sempervirens. Two varieties of the Cypress-tree.|
|E.||——— lusitanica. Lamb. Pin. t. 42. Goa Cypress-tree.|
|E.||CYCAS revoluta. Linn. Revolute-leaved Cycas.|
|E.||CYNARA Scolymus. Willd. 3. 1691. Artichoke.|
|E.||CYPERUS rotundus. A very common weed in gardens.|
|E.||——— Pepo and citrullus. Linn Pumpkin and Water-melon.|
|E.||CUCUMIS sativus. Linn Garden-cucumber.|
|E.||COSTUS speciosus. Willd. 1. 10.|
|E.||DALBERGIA Sissoo. R From Bengal ; where they grow to large|
|E.||——— frondosa. R. timber trees.|
|E.||DAPHNE odora. Hort. Kew. Sweet-scented Daphne, from China.|
|E.||DATURA fastuosa. Willd. 1. 1003.|
|E.||——— Metel. Willd. 1009.|
|E.||——— Tatula. Willd. 1. 1008.|
|E.||DAUCUS Carota. Linn. Common Carrot.|
|E.||DRACÆNA cernua. Willd. 2. 157.|
|E.||DIANTHUS barbatus. Linn. Sweet William.|
|E.||DIANTHUS chinensis. Linn, China Pink.|
|E.||——— Caryophyllus. Linn. Clove.|
|I.||DICKSONIA arborescens. Willd. 5. 485.|
Stipes, rachis and subdivisions compressed, and somewhat wooly, but not scabrous. Fronds ovate-oblong, hard, glossy above, sub-oppositely-tripinnate ; ultimate segments from oval to oblong, and crenate-serrate. Spots on the margin, until they open transversely-oval, after round.
Grows on the tops of the highest mountains ; such as Diana's Peak. Trunk single, straight ; general height when full grown, 20, or more feet, and of various thickness up to that of a man's body : covered with the bases of the decayed stipes, mosses and parasites of various kinds ; at the apex clothed with long, soft, tawny-brown wool, like that of which the finest shawls are made ; when this woolly substance is removed, the parts over which it extended are found to be scabrous. Fronds (including the stipes) from 4 to 10 feet long.
|E.||DIOSCOREA alata. Linn. Winged Yam. Here they do not thrive to be|
|E.||——— aculeata. R. Thorny Yam. of the smallest use. See Arum.|
|E.||DIOSPYRUS Kauki. Linn. Japan Diospyros, fruit large and edible.|
DOMBEYA Erythroxylon. Willd. 3. 725. Pentapetes Erythroxylon. Hort. Kew. 1st edit. 2. 438. Methania, second edition, 4. 146. of the same work.
Arboreous. Leaves ovate-cordate, crenulate, acuminate, smooth above, reticulate underneath, while young hoary, obscurely 3-5-nerved. Peduncles axillary, solitary, 2-3-flowered : flowers pentandrous.
Red-wood-tree the vernacular name on St. Helena, where it is indigenous on moderately high hills, where, if the soil is suitable, it grows rapidly with a, straight trunk to be a middling sized tree of great beauty. Bark dark brown, even and pretty smooth.
Branches numerous, spreading, tender twigs hoary. Stipules subulate. Peduncles about as long as the petioles. Flowers larger than in the following (D. Melanoxylon) colour the same and also changeable. Necitarial filaments flesh-coloured. Style twice the length of the stamina. Capsules oblong, pointed, very hairy, and somewhat shorter than the permanent calyx ; cells 3-5-seeded. This tree furnishes the islanders with an hard, close-grained mahogany-coloured, durable wood.
|I.||DOMBEYA melanoxylon. R. Methania melanoxylon. Hort Kew. 2d. edit. 4. 146.|
Leaves ovate-cordate, long-petioled subentire, firm, smooth above, ferruginously hoary underneath, obscurely 3-nerved. Peduncles axillary solitary, 1-2-flowered : flowers pentandrous. Capsules ovate, obtuse, greatly shorter than the permanent calyx ; cells 2-3-seeded.
Ebony the vernacular name.
Is a native of the barren rocks near the sea, and not far from Sandy Bay, on the south side of the island, I saw it in two gardens only, where it had in many years grown to the height of only 2-3 feet, with many longer branches spreading flat on the ground, well decorated with abundance of foliage and large beautiful flowers. Bark of the old ligneous parts rather rough and of a dark olive-black colour ; of the young shoots hoary with stellate pubescence, each starlet thereof has a ferruginous centre. Petioles, under side of the leaves, peduncles, bractes and calyx have the same covering. The leaves are greatly smaller than in D. Erythroxylon, but more entire. Stipules subulate. Peduncles length of the leaves, 1-2-flowered. Flowers large, campanulate ; when they first expand white, becoming pink or rosy by age. Bractes tern, ovate, lanceolate, pressing the base of the calyx. Stamina 5, shorter than the 5 dark purple clavate, nectarial filaments.
In some parts on the south side of the island near the sea, numbers of the dry trunks were found in former days : now few remain ; the greater part having been carried away for fuel : those little trunks are but a few feet in length, generally very crooked, and run from 1 to 3 or 4 feet in circumference near the root ; those parts of the roots and branches which remain spread nearly horizontal ; the exterior surface is pretty even, and of a dark lead colour, having been exposed to the weather, for, probably, some hundred years ; within it is nearly as black as common ebony, and as close grained, hard and heavy ; in short it is so very like ebony as to have procured it that name from the islanders.
The few trees now found alive in their native soil and situation are from 10 to 15 feet high, their trunks crooked and about as thick as a man's thigh ; the branches very numerous, spreading, &c. &c., and at this season when the young foliage is expanding, the flower buds are also to be seen, and in this state generally 2 on each peduncle ; whereas in the cultivated plants rarely more than one.
|E.||ELFUSINE corocana. R. Cynosurus Corocanus. Linn.|
|E.||——— indica. Gaert. Cynosurus. Linn.|
|E.||——— calycina. R.|
|E.||ERODIUM sempervivum. R. Pelargonium Cotyledonis. Willd. 3. 674.|
Shrubby, succulent and extremely tortuous. Umbels long-peduncled decompound. Leaves subcordate, downy, rugose, some lobate-crenate, some peltate.
A native of the barren rocky precipices on the south side of the island, and known by the name Old father live for ever. It grows to be a large spreading shrub, with innumerable, thick, succulent, extremely crooked branches, the apices obtuse, and thence both leaves and umbels spring. Bark thick and fleshy, the surface dark brown, and peels off in small fragments. Leaves long petioled and soft with down. Stipules small, triangular and acute. Peduncles terminal, generally single, very long, erect, coloured, and villous ; the umbellets numerous, and all the divisions long, coloured, and villous. Involvcre scarce any ; involucells of a few small acute scales. Flowers numerous, pure, white, calyx, 5-toothed ; the rest as in the genus. Every part is to me void of smell.
|E.||ERYTHRINA caffra. Willd. 3. 914. Cape-coral-tree.|
|E.||EUPHORBIA rosea. Willd. 2. 895. French-grass of the islanders.|
|E.||——— Peplus. Willd. 2. 903. Small-spurge.|
|E.||EUGENIA Jambos. Willd. 2. 959. Rose-apple.|
FICUS Carica. The common Fig : grows freely here, and produces good crops of excellent fruit ; but like every thing else in rural economy too much neglected.
|E.||FICUS indica, or the famous Banyan-tree of India.|
|E.||——— religiosa. Willd. 4. 1134.|
——— terebrata. Willd. 4. 1145. Is the most common tree in James's Valley, where it grows freely, and furnishes excellent fuel ; the wood of this species being much firmer than any other species of this genus known to me.
|I.||FIMBRISTYLIS textilis. R.|
Culms naked, columnar until above the middle, then somewhat compressed. Leaves none. Spikelets numerous in a hard sessile head, 1-2 inches below the subulate grooved apex : flowers 1-3 androgynous : scales boat-shaped, rather obtuse : style 3-fid.
St. Helena thatching rush : is a native of the interior of the island, and in plenty for every purpose : in moist elevated situations, it grows to the height of 3-6 feet, perfectly destitute of leaves and quite straight ; about as thick as a crow-quill, of a firm texture, and smooth glossy deep green colour. A good substantial covering of this rush is said to last from 10 to 15 years, and keeps out wet effectually.
FRAGARIA vesca. Willd. 2. 1090. Strawberries, a few varieties, but little or no care is taken of them, consequently they do not thrive.
|E.||FRAXINUS chinensis. R. China Ash, a small slow growing tree.|
|E.||FUMARIA capreolata. Willd. 3. 868. Running Fumitory.|
FUCHSIA coccinea. Willd. 2. 340. Scarlet Fuchsia grows most luxuriantly in Sandy Bay.
|E.||GARDENIA florida. Willd. 1. 1225. Cape Jasmine.|
|E.||——— Thunbergia. Willd. 1. 1226.|
|E.||——— radicans. Willd. 1. 1225.|
GLEDITSCHIA horrida. Willd. 4. 1097. This tree is one of the most stately and most beautiful on the island, but unfortunately there is but a single individual to be seen ; it grows in the garden at the Governor's country-house, where it has attained to the height of 50 feet or more ; with trunk and coma proportionally large. It has not produced seed, nor have they hitherto been able to multiply this charming tree. The large ramous spines are confined to the trunk, and larger branches.
GMELINA asiatica, Willd. 3. 813. A large thorny shrub, with large drooping yellow flowers.
|E.||GNAPHALIUM americanum. Willd. 3. 1887. Everlasting.|
|E.||GOMPHRENA globosa. Willd. 1. 1321. Annual Globe-amaranth.|
GOSSYPIUM latifolium. Willd. 3. 806. Grows freely, and yields a large produce of fine Cotton.
|E.||——— barbadense. Willd. 3. 806. Barbadoes Cotton.|
|I.||GRAMMITIS maryinella. Willd. 5. p. 139.|
|E.||HIBISCUS Populneus. Willd. 3. 209. An useful timber tree of considerable size.|
|E.||——— populneoides. R. A tree similar to the last, but larger.|
|E.||——— mutabilis. Willd. 3. 817. Changeable-flowered.|
|E.||——— syriacus. Willd. 3. 818. Syrian Hibiscus.|
|E.||——— sabdariffa. Willd. 3. 821, or West-India sorrel.|
|E.||——— cannabinus. Willd. 3. 822. Hemp Hibiscus.|
|E.||——— Abelmoschus. Willd. 3. 826. Musk Hibiscus.|
|E.||——— Trionum. Willd. 3. 832. Bladder Hibiscus.|
|E.||——— diversifolius. Willd. 3. 820. A tall tree of short duration.|
|E.||——— urens. Willd. 3. 817.|
|E.||——— Rosa sinensis. Willd. 3. 812. China-Rose or Shoe flower.|
|E.||——— phæaniceus. Willd. 3. 813.|
|E.||——— armatus, or Rock-rose of the islanders.|
|E.||HÆMANTHUS. From the Cape of Good Hope ; species uncertain.|
|I.||HEDYOTIS arborea. R. Dog-wood of the islanders.|
Arboreous. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong, acuminate entire, glossy, recurved : stipulary sheath cylindric, with one, or three unequal denticuli on each side. Corymbs terminal, brachiate, subglobular. Capsules globular.
A small tree, a native of the dark forests which decorate the misty alpine tops of the most lofty mountains in St. Helena.
|E.||HELIANTHUS annuus. Willd. 3. 2237. Annual Sun-flower.|
|E.||HELIOTROPIUM indicum. Willd. 1. 740. A weed in gardens.|
|E.||HEMEROCALLIS fulva. Willd. 2. 197. Day Lily.|
|E.||HORDEUM hexastichon. Willd. 1. 472, Spring Barley.|
|E.||——— distichoa. Willd. 1. 473. Common Barley.|
|E.||HYDEROCOTYLE asiatica. Willd. 1. 1316. Penny-wort.|
|E.||HYDRANGEA hortensis. Willd. 2. 633. China Guelder-rose.|
|E.||HYMENOPHYLLUM capillaceum. R.|
Parasitic ; surculi and stipes capillary, the former creeping. Fronds linear, lanceolate bipinnatifid ; segments linear, margins entire. Involucres terminal, solitary, more rarely paired, subrotund.
A most beautiful, exquisitely delicate, small creeping parasite, found mixed with moss on the trunks of trees Diana's Peak.
|E.||HYPERICUM monogynum. Willd. 1. 1442. Chinese St. John's Wort.|
JASMINUM officinale and odoratissimum. Willd. 1. 40. Common and yellow Jessamine.
|E.||IMPATIENS Balsamina. Willd. 1. 1175. Garden Balsam.|
|E.||INDIGOFERA tinctoria. Willd. 3. 1237. Common Indigo-plant.|
|E.||IPOMOEA quamoclit. Willd, 1. 879. and grandiflora. R.|
|E.||JUSTICA betonica Willd. 1. 96. Betony-leaved Justica.|
|E.||IXIA. Several species from the Cape, which thrive well in elevated gardens.|
|KYLLINGA monocephala. Willd. 1. 256.|
|——— sumatrensis. Willd. 1. 258.|
|E.||LACTUCA sativa. Willd. 3. 1523. Lettuce, some few varieties.|
|E.||LAMIUM purpureum. Willd. 3. 88. Red Dead-nettle.|
LAURUS Persea. Willd. 2. 480. Avocado Pear. Saw only one tree on the whole island, and no care taken of it : indeed no person knew what it was. It blossoms freely every year, but has not produced fruit.
|E.||LEONTODON Taraxacum. Willd. 3. 1544. Dandelion.|
|E.||LIMODORUM aloefolium. Cymbidium. Willd. 4. 101.|
|I.||LOBELIA scævolifolia. R.|
Shrubby, erect, branchlets succulent and polished. Leaves sparse, cuneate-lanceolate, smooth, serrate. Peduncles axillary, solitary, shorter than the leaves, one-flowered. Capsules clavate-turbinate.
A native of the thick, well-shaded forests which clothe the south face of the Sandy Bay range of mountains ; where it grows to be a pretty large shrub, the flowers rather large and pure white.
|E.||LONICERA Periclymenum and Caprifolium. Two species of Honey-suckle.|
|E.||LUPINUS. Lupins two or three species in gardens on the hills.|
|I.||LYCOPODIUM cernuum. Willd. 5. 30. (Compare with P. Saururas Willd. 5. 50.)|
Grows in great abundance on the mountains, where it is called Buck's-horn. General height from 1 to 3 feet, and uncommonly ramous.
|I.||LYCOPODIUM axillare. R.|
Stems erect, simple, imbricated on all sides with numerous, glossy, entire, acute, subappressed, ensiform leaves. Capsules axillary, solitary, sessile.
Found indigenous among grass on rather dry, rocky situations over the higher parts of the south face of Diana's Peak.
MAGNOLIA pumila, obovata, and fuscata. All from China, and grow luxuriantly here.
|E.||MALVA mauritiana. Linn. Ivy-leaved Mallow.|
|E.||MANGIFERA indica. Linn. Common Mango, thrives well at the Briars only.|
MELIA sempervirens. Willd. Grows abundantly to the size of a small tree over most parts of the island, and highly ornamental, being in flower and seed the whole year.
|E.||——— superba. R. A large timber tree from India.|
|E.||MELIA robusta. R. Is also a large timber tree from India.|
——— Azedarach. Willd. 2. 558. A good and beautiful timber tree ; a native of China, &c.
|E.||MELISSA Officinalis. Willd. 3. 146. Balm.|
|E.||MENTHA viridis. Linn., and two or three undetermined species of Mint.|
MESEMBRYANTHEMUM. Fig Mary-gold. Several species Dr. R. saw in gardens ; they were from the Cape of Good Hope originally.
MESPILUS japonica. Willd. 2. 1010. Louquat of the Chinese. This most elegant useful tree is perfectly at home here, and in time, with a little care, will be highly beneficial to St. Helena.
|E.||MICHELIA Champaca. Willd. 2. 1260. In one garden only.|
|I.||MIKANIA arborea. R.|
Arboreous, with straight trunk. Leaves alternate, petioled, oblong, smooth, gland-dentate-serrate. Panicles terminal, drooping. Calyx simple, cylindric, 5-toothed, 5-flowered.
She-cabbage tree the vernacular name. In the forests which decorate the south face of Sandy-bay ridge, it grows plentifully to be a tall slender straight tree, particularly while young ; for by age it becomes bent to one side, and well furnished with crooked brittle branches. The wood is white, and the pith, which is used for tinder, in very large quantity. Young shoots smooth and of a bright purple colour ; while the trees are young, say under 6-8 feet, simple, with the leafy top resembling an highly-coloured colewort, hence the vernacular name ; when in this stage the leaves are generally from 1 to 2 feet long, by 4-8 inches broad ; in old stunted trees 2-3 inches long, by 1-2 broad. Panicles rather thin, subdichotomous, coloured like the petioles, &c. corymbiform. Bractes single, smooth and small under each division, besides others on the pedicells, and round the base of' the simple, cylindric, smooth, 5-toothed calyx, which, when the seeds are ripe splits into 5, linear, recurved leaflets.
|E.||MIMOSA arabica. R. Acacia. Willd. 4. 1085.|
|E.||——— Serissa. R. or Mauritius black-wood.|
|E.||——— cinerea. Linn. Acacia cinerea. Willd. 4. 1057.|
|E.||——— glaucescens. R. Acacia glaucescens. Willd. 4. 1052.|
|E.||——— juniperina. Acacia juniperina. Willd. 4. 1049.|
|E.||——— linifolia. Linn. Acacia linifolia. Willd. 4. 1051.|
|E.||——— glauca. Linn. Acacia glauca. Willd. 4. 1075.|
|E.||——— farnesiana. Linn. Acacia farnesiana. Willd. 4. 1083.|
——— scandens. Linn. Acacia scandens. Willd. 4. 1057. On the windward side of the island, the seeds are cast on shore and vegetate.
|Besides the above there are some other exotic species, which the author had not an opportunity to determine.|
|E.||MIMUSOPS Elengi. Willd. 2. 325. Bocul of the Hindoos.|
|E.||MIRABILIS Jalapa. Willd. 1. 999. Common Marvel of Peru.|
MOMORDICA Charantia. Willd. 4. 601. The fruit, before maturity, much used in the diet of the Hindoos.
|E.||MORÆA chinensis. Willd. 1. 245.|
|E.||MORUS nigra. Willd. 4. 369. Common Mulberry-tree.|
|E.||——— atropurpurea. R. A quick growing tree from China.|
|E.||MURRAYA exotica. Willd. 2. 548. China-box tree.|
|E.||MUSA sapientum. Willd. 4. 894. Banana.|
|E.||——— paradisiaca. Willd. 4. 893. Common Plantain tree.|
MYRISTICA moschata. Willd. 4. 863. Banda nutmeg, one sickly plant in Major Hudson's garden in James's Valley.
MYRTUS Pimeta. Willd. 2. 973. Introduced by Dr. Roxburgh in 1805. It thrives well in the garden near the south side of the island, where it is cool, and often moistened with misty clouds.
——— communis. Willd. 2. 967. Grows most luxuriantly to the size of a small very ramous tree. Besides the common myrtle, there are two other varieties thereof.
|E.||NARCISSUS Tazetta, Pseudo-Narcissus and Jonquilla. In gardens.|
|E.||NERIUM tinctorium. R, and odorum. Willd. 1. 1235.|
|E.||NICOTIANA Tabacum. Willd. 1. 1014. Common Virginian and Havanna Tobacco.|
OLEA europea. Willd. 1. 44. Common Olive. Grows luxuriantly to be a tree of considerable size and might be advantageously reared for fuel, independent of the fruit.
|I.||OPHIOGLOSSUM lusitanicum. Willd. 5. 59.|
|E.||ORIGANUM majoranoides. Willd. 3. 137. A stout shrubby species of Marjoram.|
ORYZA sativa. Willd. 2. 247. This highly useful grain, Rice, does not thrive on any part of the island : at least such is the report ; and Dr. R. saw nothing to make him think otherwise.
|E.||OSTEOSPERMUM pisiferum. Willd.|
|PANICUM ciliare. Willd. 1. 344.|
|——— ægyptiacum. Willd. 1. 343.|
——— Dactylon. Willd. 1. 342. Wire-grass the vernacular name, and supposed to be a native of the island. Agrostis stellata, and linearis of Willdenow, I am inclined to consider this very identical species, consequently the East Indian Dup-grass, or Dupa.
——— italicum. Willd. 1. 336. Is much cultivated in many parts of Asia, but does not thrive on St. Helena.
|E.||——— molle. Willd. 1. 340, or Scotch grass.|
|E.||——— verticillatum. Willd. 1. 334. Rough Panic-grass.|
|Besides the above 6, there are two or three more, which Dr. Roxburgh had not an opportunity to ascertain.|
|E.||PARKINSONIA aculeata. Willd. 2. 513. A most beautiful small quick growing tree.|
|E.||PASSIFLORA cærulea. Willd. 3. 623. Common Passion-flower.|
|E.||PASTINACA sativa. Willd. 1. 1466. Parsnip.|
|E.||PELARGONIUM betulinum. Willd.|
|E.||——— capitatum. Willd.|
|E.||——— angulosum. Willd. Geraniums. All introduced|
|E.||——— cucullatum. Willd. from the Cape of Good|
|E.||——— inquinans. Willd. Hope.|
|E.||——— denticulatum. Willd.|
|E.||——— graveolens. Willd.|
|E.||——— hybridum. Willd.|
PENTAPETES. Linn ; Pteorospermum suberifolium. Willd. 3. 728. Saw only one tree on the island, it was reared in the Company's nursery from seed sent from Bengal by Dr. Roxburgh.
|E.||PHASEOLUS vulgaris. WilId. 3. 1030. Several varieties of Kidney-bean.|
|E.||——— lunatus. Willd. 3. 1031. Lima-bean.|
|E.||PHILLYREA media. Willd. 1. 42. Common Phillyrea.|
|E.||PHLOMIS nepetifolia. Willd. 3. 1236.|
|I.||PHYLICA elliptica. R.|
Shrubby. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, elliptic, rarely subovate, thick and hard, hoary and concave underneath. Stipules 4-tern, ovate, concave. Flowers in peduncled, axillary, hoary heads. Capsules turbinate.
A native of the most elevated parts of Diana's Peak, and of the Sandy Bay range, where it grows to be a pretty large, but low spreading tree, there called the wild Olive ; flowering in July and the seed ripen in March. The wood is dark-coloured, hard, and very useful.
|I.||PHYLICA rosmarinifolia. R.|
Arboreous, very ramous. Leaves alternate, short petioled, lanceolar, acute, lucid above, hoary underneath, margins revolute. Stipules subulate. Flowers axillary, subsessile.
Wild Rosemary it is called by the islanders ; and is found indigenous on moderately high mountains, where it grows to be a middling-sized useful timber tree of great beauty and fragrance. The bark tolerably smooth ; the trunk short, thick, and crooked. The leaves bear an exact resemblance to those of Rosemary : lucid above and white underneath. Flowers minute, pale greenish white. Capsules size of a pea, oval, until dry-ripe bacciform, after they split into 3.
PHOENIX dactylifera. Willd. 4. 730. A few trees only were seen, though they thrive well, and promise much benefit to the island if carefully managed.
|E.||PHYLLANTHUS andrachnoides. Willd. 4. 575.|
|I.||PHYSALIS begonifolia. R.|
Shrubby and very ramous. Leaves in pairs, petioled, unequally ovate-cordate, entire, and soft. Peduncles axillary, solitary, drooping one-flowered. Calyx campanulate, larger than the white corol, its border divided into 5, broad, short unequal rounded segments.
A native of the rocky hills on the cast and south sides of the island, and known by the name Box-wood. The trunk grows single to 2-4 feet in height and about as thick as a man's arm ; its bark tolerably smooth and brownish Branches numerous and divide into innumerable alternate villous branchlets.
PHYSALIS peruviana. Willd. 1. 1022. Brasil-cherry, is very common every where, because the goats do not eat it, and furnishes the inhabitants with ample supplies of large, palatable berries, without the least care.
PINUS longifolia. Lamb. pin. tab. 21. Of this magnificent pine there is but one or two young trees in the Governor's garden.
——— Pinaster. Willd. 4. 496. Grows well and to a great size on the south side of the island, also in the Governor's garden and plantations.
|E.||——— Pinea. Willd. 4. 497. Stone pine.|
|E.||——— sylvestris. Willd. 4. 494. Scotch fir.|
|PISUM sativum. Willd. 3. 1070. Garden pea, a few varieties.|
|E.||PITTOSPORUM Tobira. Bot. Mag. 1396.|
|I.||PLANTAGO robusta. R.|
Shrubby. Leaves crowded round the apices of the robust ligneous brancbes, linear, intire, withering. Spikes few, axillary, cylindric, long-peduncled.
A native of the tops of the moderately high hills over the island, where it grows to be a stout shrub, with but few very thick, simple, somewhat woody branches ; bark strongly marked with the innumerable scars of the fallen leaves.
|PLANTAGO major. Willd.|
|POA japonica. Willd. 1. 394. Three grasses of rather an inferior|
|——— pratensis. Willd. 1. 388. quality.|
|——— laxa. Willd. 1. 386.|
|E.||POINCIANA pulcherrinia. Willd. Prickly flower-fence.|
|E.||POLYANTHES tuberosa. Willd. 2. 164. Tuberose.|
|I.||POLYPODIUM macrocarpum. Willd. 5. 147.|
Surculi creeping, slender and very scaly, rooting on trees, rocks, &c. stipes short, slender, polished dark brown, and somewhat winged, while young scaly. Fronds (4-6 inches,) narrow-lanceolar, tapering, most at the base, entire, rather obtuse, smooth, thick, firm, veinless, surfaces, particularly the under dotted with small ferruginous specks. Spots in one row on the exterior half, large, round and distinct, but intermixed with many peltate scales, which while young unite and form a complete polyphyllous involucre.
Is a pretty, delicate species, growing over the south face of Diana's Peak. It may be referred to Pleopeltis of Humboldt and Bonpland.
|I.||POLYPOD1UM molle. R.|
Stipes deeply channelled, and with the rachis clothed with soft hair and large brown ramenti. Fronds ovate, soft and hairy underneath, sub-oppositely-bipinnate ; leaflets deeply crenate. Fructifications numerous, small, generallv in two ill defined rows equally distant from the nerve and margin.
A native of Diana's Peak, grows in tufts in moist thickets to be 2-4 feet high.
|I.||POLYPODIUM rugulosum. Willd. 5. 206.|
Stipes hairy. Fronds oblong alternately bitripinnate, texture thin and soft ; pinnæ lanceolate, obtuse ; leaflets dentate. Spots submarginal.
Found on Diana's Peak, growing to the height of 2-3 feet, but slender, and every way delicate.
|I.||POLYPODIUM dicksonifolium. R.|
Stipes brown, channelled and scabrous. Fronds lanceolate subtri-pinnate : pinnulæ subopposite, linear-oblong, obtuse, deeply obtuse-crenate. Spots large, one or two on each of the ultimate segments of the frond, the margins of which turn down and in part covers them.
A pretty delicately divided plant, growing on Diana's Peak to the height of 8-12 inches.
|I.||POLYPODIUM viscidum. R.|
Surculi flexuose brown and shaggy, stipes, &c. channelled and clothed with clammy headed diverging soft hairs on a brown ground. Fronds ovate, suboppositely tripinnate and superdecompound : leaflets linear-oblong, obtusely crenate or pinnatifed. Spots distinct few or numerous, under the recurved crenatures of the segments of the leaflets.
Common about stone-dikes, &c. &c. Sandy Bay, where it grows to the height of from 6 inches to 2 or 3 feet, and fructifies all the year.
|E.||POPULUS alba. Willd. 4. 802. White Poplar, or Abele-tree ; thrives well.|
|E.||PORTULACA oleracea. Willd. 2. 859. Common Purslane.|
|E.||PROTEA argentea. Willd. 1. 529. Silver-tree.|
|E.||——— mellifera. Willd. 1. 522, Honey-bearing Protea.|
|E.||PRUNUS Armeniaca. Willd. 2. 989. Apricot. This tree does not succeed here.|
|E.||PSIDIUM pomiferum. Willd. 2. 958. Common Guava.|
|I.||PSORALEA pinnata. Willd. 3. 1342. Goble-gheer the vernacular name.|
|I.||PTERIS semiserrata. R.|
Stipes length of the ovate, oppositely bipinnatifid flimsy fronds, polished, smooth, green and channelled. Pinnæ lanceolate : segments divided nearly to the base, linear-lanceolate, barren apices serrate.
A native of Sandy Bay, where it grows to be 2-5 feet high.
|I.||PTERIS paleacea. R.|
Stipes and surculi densely clothed with long brown scariose scales. Fronds suborbicular, bi-tripinnately pedate ; leaflets falcate-linguiform obtuse. Rachis of the pinnæ spinulose on the upper side.
A robust scarce species, of about two feet in height, a native of the south face of Diana's Peak.
|E.||PUNICA granatum. Willd. 2. 981. Pomegranate.|
|E.||PYRUS chinensis. R. China pear ; they are large, but very indifferent.|
|E.||PYRUS Malus. Willd. 2. 1016. The apple, and but few sorts on the island.|
|E.||——— Cydonia. Willd. 2. 1020. Quince.|
|E.||QUERCUS Robur. Willd. 4. 450. Common British oak.|
|E.||——— Rex. Willd. 4. 433. Evergreen oak.|
|E.||——— Suber. Willd. 4. 433. Cork-tree.|
|RANUNCULUS bulbosus. Willd. 2. 1324. Butter-cups.|
|E.||RAPHANUS sativus. 3. 560. Radish.|
|E.||RHUS Vernix. Willd. 1. 1497. One tree in the Deputy Governor's garden.|
|E.||RICINUS communis. Willd. 4. 564. Common Palma-Christi. Grows luxuriantly.|
|I.||ROELLA angustifolia. R.|
Perennial, diffuse : branches long, slender and scabrous. Leaves alternate, sessile, linear-lanceolate, remotely and acutely gland-serrate-denticulate. Peduncles lateral, many times longer than the leaves, dichotomous, many-flowered.
Common in fissures of the rocks about Major Seal's farm in Sandy Bay, where fogs prevail and the thermometer ranges from 60 to 70. Is in seed and flower the whole year. The flowers are pure white, erect and pretty large. I think it would be an ornamental plant for the flower garden.
|I.||ROELLA paniculata. R.|
Shrubby, erect, branchlets hairy. Leaves sparse, sessile, cuneate-lanceolar, serrulate, hairy. Panicles terminal, hairy.
A slender upright shrub, with but few erect branches ; a native of the thick forests on the south face of Diana's Peak ; the flowers are large and white.
|I.||ROELLA linifolia. R.|
Shrubby. subparasitic (on Dicksonia arhorescens.) Leaves sparse, sessile, numerous, linear, smooth, very acutely serrulate. Peduncles (racemes.) terminal few-flowered.
A pretty little ramous diffuse alpine found on the top of Sandy Bay ridge, chiefly on Diana's Peak. Leaves crowded round the somewhat villous columnar branches. The flowers white, with a tinge of pink, and highly ornamental.
|E.||ROSA triphylla. Scandent, R. Scandent, ternate-leaved, large white single rose.|
|E.||——— centifolia. Willd. 2. 1071. Common rose.|
|E.||——— muscosa. Willd. 2. 1078. Moss rose.|
|——— chinensis. Willd. 2. 1078.|
|E.||——— semperfloreus. Willd. 2. 1074.|
|RUBUS pinnatus. Willd. 2. 1081?|
Shrubby. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets 5 or 7, rarely 3, ovate-cordate, lucid, strongly veined, doubly serrate. Panicles terminal. Stems, branches, petioles and peduncles armed ; tender shoots villous and hoary.
Bramble the vernacular name on St. Helena, where it proves a most noxious plant : running over very large tracts of the best land, where the rapiditv with which it grows to a much larger size than the common bramble of Europe (Rubus fruticosus) has hitherto baffled every attempt to extirpate it. The roots grow to a great size, and every bit left in the ground grows. Stem scarce any : what there is, grows to be as thick as a man's leg sometimes. Branches numerous, very long and scandent, when their apices rest on the ground they strike root and produce other plants, as in the other species of this genus : the young shoots glaucous and downy ; the bark of the old dark brown ; all are well armed with numerous recurved prickles. Leaves alternate, pinnate, 6-12 inches long ; leaflets ovate and ovate-cordate, smooth, doubly serrate. Petioles and ribs armed. Stipules petiolary, cusiform. Panicles terminal, with their peduncles and subdivisions armed and downy. Bractes like the stipules. Calycine segments lanceolate, nearly twice the length of the ovate, pink petals, and they are rather longer than the stamina and styles. Berries in shape, size, and colour very like those of the common bramble, but scarce so palatable.
Some of the old inhabitants say it was brought originally from England for the common bramble of that country ; others, and with greater probability, say it was brought from the Cape of Good Hope.
|E.||RUMEX vescicarius. Willd. 2. 256. Bladder sorrel, and Acetosa, or common sorrel.|
——— patientia. Willd. 2. 249. and one or two species, which Dr. Roxburgh had not an opportunity of ascertaining.
|E.||RUTA graveolens. Willd. 2. 542. Rue.|
SALIX babylonica. Willd, 4. 671. Weeping-willow, and two more unascertained species.
|E.||SACCHARUM officinarum. Willd. 1. 32 1. Sugar-cane.|
|I.||SALSOLA salsa. Willd. 1. 1312. Common over the most barren parts of the island.|
|E.||SALVIA officinalis. Willd. 3. 129. Common Sage, and coccinea, scarlet Sage.|
|E.||SAMBUCUS nigra. Willd. 1. 1495. Common Elder.|
|E.||SANSEVIERA zeylanica. Willd. 2. 159.|
|E.||SCYTALIA Litchi see Gaert. sem. 1. 197. Litchi of China, a well-known fruit.|
|E.||——— Longan. R. Longan, or Dragon's-eye, the small round grey Litchi.|
|E.||——— Rambootan. R. Nephelium lappaceum. Linn. Rambootan of the Malays.|
|E.||SENECIO Jacobea. Willd. 3. 1997. Common Rag-wort.|
|E.||SIDA lanceolato, and microphylla. Willd. 3. 736 and 739.|
|E.||SIGESBECKIA orientalis. Willd. 3. 2219. A weed in gardens.|
|E.||SOLANUM tuberosum. Willd. 1. 1033. Common Potatoe, several varieties.|
|E.||——— Lycopersicum. Willd. 1. 1033. Love-apple.|
|E.||——— Pseudo-capsicum. Willd. 1. 1026. Bastard Capsicum.|
|E.||——— Sodomeum. Willd. 1. 1043. Black-spined Solanum.|
|E.||SOLANUM Jacquinii. Willd. 1. 1041.|
|E.||——— nigrunt Willd. 1. 1035. Garden Solanum ; its leaves used as spinage.|
|I.||SOLIDAGO spuria. Willd. 3. 2053. Conyza Rugosa. Ait. Kew. 3. 184.|
Arboreous. Leaves short-petioled, cuneate-lanecolate, obtuse, serrate-dentate, tomentose underneath. Corymbs terminal (ultimately in the forks) length or the leaves, much crowded.
Bastard-Cabbage-tree of the Islanders. On the tops of the highest mountains it grows to be a large, but inelegant tree. The wood close-grained, white and durable, but its chief use is for fuel.
|I.||SOLIDAGO Leucodendron. Willd. 3. 2054?|
Arboreous, very ramous. Leaves sessile, cuneate-lanceolar, anterior margin serrate, smooth. Corymbs terminal, length of the leaves, many-flowered : flowers subcylindric : female florets 6-10 in the ray, and 4-6 hermaphrodite in the centre.
Cabbage-tree-gum-wood the vernacular name on St. Helena, where it is indigenous on the mountains at an elevation of from 1500 to 2000 feet above the sea, and grows to be a pretty large, very ramous tree, its ultimate ramifications trichotomous, with dark brown bark, rendered scabrous by the numerous elevated scars of the fallen leaves. Leaves smoother and less clammy than in the other species. Corymbs terminal, several together : peduncles and divisions cylindric and smooth : flowers numerous, small and white, the female florets revolute ; bractes subulate ; scales of the calyx decrease so as to be very minute at the base. The wood used for fuel chiefly.
|I.||SOLIDAGO infegrifolia. R.|
Arboreous with far spreading branches and smooth glossy branchlets. Leaves sparse, approximate, sessile, cuneate-lanceolate, obtuse, intire, margins revolute, glossy above, while young slightly woolly underneath. Corymbs terminal, length of the leaves, very ramous and large.
Black-cabbage-tree, the vernacular name on Sandy Bay ridge it grows to be one of the largest, some say the largest indigenous tree on the island ; the trunk about 5-6 feet in circumference ; the coma very ramous large and spreading ; wood white, hard and serviceable for various purposes, but fuel chiefly. Flowers white, appearing in January, female florets 20-30 in the ray : male in the disk, and numerous ; receptacle naked, convex : pappus hairy. Calyx subcylindric, imbricated : scales numerous, linear, acute.
|I.||SOLIDAGO cuneifolia. R.|
Arboreous. Leaves sessile, cuneiform, grossly serrate on the anterior margins, very rugose (but scarce villous). Peduncles terminal, length of the leaves, few flowered ; hermaphrodite and female florets about 2 of each.
He-cabbage-tree of the islanders. It grows to be a middle-sized tree its ultimate ramifications dichotomous : bark thereof olive-brown. Leaves less crowded than in Leucodendron but larger, anterior half deeply serrate : posterior half entire and taper much, all are very rugose, and villous underneath. Peduncles terminal, simple and one-flowered, or soon divide into 2, 3 or 4 long, slender, smooth, one-flowered pedicels : flowers white : calyx cylindric, &c. as in Leucodendron ; the female florets are nearly as numerous as the hermaphrodite, lanceolar, apices 3-dentate, spreading at first, but by age become revolute.
|I.||SOLIDAGO rotundifolia. R.|
Arboreous. Leaves alternate, long-petioled, from oval to subrotund, serrate-dentate, smooth, while young shining with clammy varnish. Panicles terminal, spreading, length of the leaves very ramous and subrotund.
A native of the heights of St. Helena, where it is called Bastard Gum-wood by some, and Cabbage-tree by others. On the hills and mountains it grows to be a tree of about 20 feet in height, with a crooked trunk which is thick in proportion to the size of the tree ; its bark and that of the branches almost black, but pretty smooth, except for the numerous scars left by the decayed leaves. Wood white, hard and durable. Petioles channelled, nearly as long as the leaves. Panicles terminal when they first appear, but by the growth of 2 or 3 branchlets from the apex of the twig they soon stand in the fork thereof : this is the general habit of all those syngenesious trees found, by me, on this island. Flowers numerous, small and white, 3-10 lingulate revolute female florets in the ray, and 7-8 tubular male in the disk.
|SONCHUS oleraceus and lævis. Common sow-thistles.|
|E.||SPARTIUM junceum. Willd. 3. 926. Broom.|
|I.||SPILANTHES tetrandra. R.|
Shrubby. Leaves opposite, short-petioled, oblong, serrate, convex, reticulate underneath. Peduncles axillary, solitary, 1, rarely 2-flowered, bracted : florets tetrandrous.
Indigenous on the mountains, where it grows to be 4-5 feet high.
|E.||SPINACIA oleracea. Willd. 4. 766. Common Spinage.|
|E.||SPIRÆA corymbosa. R. A pretty China shrub already described by Dr. Roxburgh.|
SWIETENIA Mahogoni. Willd. 2. 557. Mahogany tree introduced from the Botanic Garden at Calcutta.
|E.||——— febrifuga. R. East India Fever-bark.|
|E.||SYRINGA vulgaris. Willd. 1. Common Lilac.|
|E.||TAGETES patula and erecta. Willd. 3. 2126. French and African Marygold.|
|E.||TAMARINDUS indica. Willd. 3. 577 . Tamarind-tree.|
|E.||TAXUS elongata. Willd. 4. 857. Cape of Good Hope Yew.|
|E.||——— chinensis. R. China Yew.|
|E.||TECTONA grandis. Willd. 1. 1088. Teak-tree.|
|E.||TERMINALIA Catappa. Willd. 4. 967. An elegant and useful large tree.|
TETRANTHERA macrophylla. R. Brought from Bengal by Dr. Roxburgh, being the food of the Mogadooty silk-worm.
|I.||THEA. Tea. Saw one or two stunted plants in the Governor's garden.|
|E.||THUJA orientalis. Willd. 4. 508. Chinese Arbor-vitæ.|
|E.||——— cupressoides. Willd. 4. 510. African Arbor-vitæ.|
|E.||THYMUS vulgaris. Willd. 3. 139. Common Thyme.|
|E.||TRADESCANTIA dicolor. Willd. 2. 18. Purple-leaved Tradescantia.|
|E.||TRICHOSANTHES anguina. Willd. 4. 598. Snake-gourd.|
TRIFOLIUM. Clover. Several sorts have been repeatedly tried, but with little success : in some places a little white clover is seen growing amongst the grass in gardens.
|E.||TRITICUM æstivum, and hybernum. Summer and Winter wheat.|
|E.||TROPÆOLUM majus. Willd. 2. 298. Indian-cress.|
|E.||ULEX europeus. Willd. 3. 969. Common-whin.|
|E.||ULMUS virgata. R. A small tree from China.|
URTICA tenacissima. R. Calvoee of the Malays, from the fibres of it's bark the China-grass cloth is made.
|E.||VICIA Faba. Willd. 4. 1111. Garden-bean.|
|E.||VINCA rosea. Willd. 1. 1233. Rosy Periwinkle.|
|E.||VITIS vinifera. Willd. 1. 1180. Grape-vine.|
|E.||VOLKAMERIA inermis. See Clerodendrum.|
|E.||VIOLA tricolor. Willd. 1. 1168. Pansy.|
ZEA Mays. Willd. 4. 200. Indian-corn, is common in gardens, but does not seem to make anything like a profitable field-crop.
|E.||ZAMIA, one small plant of an uncertain species in the public nursery.|