The ensuing Series of Views on the Island of St. Helena, which late events in English History have rendered peculiarly interesting, is the production of James Wathen, Esq. of Hereford; whose Portrait is prefixed to the present volume, and who is already known to the literary and graphic world, by his entertaining "Journal of a Voyage to Madras and China," Lond. 1814, Quarto; illustrated by several engravings from original drawings by the Author. Fifty years of an amiable and unassuming life have been devoted by that gentleman to travel, and an ardent pursuit of the Fine Arts. His pencil has traced almost every remarkable view in the United Kingdom; the Continent of Europe has witnessed his graphical industry; from the shores of Asia he has transported the most beautiful scenery; and like another Bruce, these excursions, so far as human perseverence would allow, were performed on foot.
In the present instance, during the short stay of not quite three days on the Island of St. Helena, in the Summer of 1812, Mr. Wathen made no fewer than thirteen drawings from various parts of it; two of which were published in his Journal, and eight of the remainder have been consigned to the Proprietor, to make their appearance in the present undertaking. The view of Longwood, of course, is the result of later performance, as well as the drawing that is given in the Title-page. Independent of the remembrances which England will always hereafter associate with St. Helena, the Island itself has too much of the picturesque not to render its scenery at all times delightful to the lover of natural beauty. That solitary speck in the vast Atlantic, which looks as if loneliness and loveliness had at once marked it for their own, is here faithfully shewn in all its wild and romantic lineaments, and from these representations those who may never look upon the original scenes, may yet highly enjoy them in such correct reflections. Next to the performance of Mr. Wathen, the public will be gratified by the skilful manner in which Mr. Clark, the Engraver, has transferred the drawings to the copper; giving all their softness and freedom of delineation, combined with the permanence and utility of plates. The Proprietor has, therefore, great pleasure in adding his tribute of praise to that which all will be ready to pay upon an inspection of his labours.
A very few words are requisite on the descriptive part of this volume; it has not any pretensions to originality, for the valuable and authentic works of those who had been long conversant with the Island of St. Helena, formed the foundation. If their information have been abstracted with care and related with fidelity, it is all which was intended in the following pages. The chief object in the present volume is to preserve the beautiful and interesting views which follow, and their description may be considered entirely as a secondary matter.
The Wood-Cut beneath, is a faithful representation of the large Cross of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honour, actually worn by Napoleon Buonaparte in the Battle of Waterloo. It is formed of silver, covered with white enamel, having the interior of embossed gold, with the Motto in letters of the same metal on a circle of purple enamel. The other side is ornamented with the Imperial Eagle, with the Motto "Honneur et Patrie." The Proprietor is indebted to John Allen, Esq. Jun. of Hereford, for the loan of the original.
I S L A N D O F S T. H E L E N A.
SAINT HELENA, is an Island seated almost in the midst of the Atlantic Ocean, or more properly, the Ethiopian Sea; in a Southern latitude of 15º 55', and West longitude 5º 55': it lies within the limit of the South East trade-wind, and is distant 400 leagues, or 1200 miles West, from the Coast of Africa, which is the nearest Continent. On the other side of the Island, South America, which is about 700 leagues, or 2100 miles distant, is the nearest land; but on the North Ascension Isle lies from it, only 600 miles. The Island of Tristan da Cunha and Gough's Island are situate on the South West side, at a distance of 1200 miles.
St. Helena was first discovered by John de Nova, a Portuguese Commodore, on his return from India, on May the 21st, 1500-1; and on the eleven-hundredth and seventy-third anniversary of the Festival of St. Helen, the mother of the Greek Emperor Constantine, in honour of whom it was named. Custom and inattention to the original spelling of St. Helena, have introduced. and almost naturalised a false pronounciation of the word, by causing a long accent to he laid upon the second syllable This, however, is completely erroneous, as the whole word is to be sounded short; its original Greek orthography being E'AENA, where the short E, or Epsilon, was used, instead of the Heta, or long one. At the time when this Island was discovered, its only inhabitants were Sea-fowls, and occasionally Seals, Turtles and Sea-lions; while the interior was one entire forest, and even some of the overhanging precipices were covered with the Conyza Gumnifera, or Gumwood tree. The first use of St. Helena was only as a place or refreshment for the ships of various nations visiting the Indies; although for a period of eighty-seven years, the Portuguese kept secret their discovery of this Island. At length, at day break, on the 8th of June, 1588, that gallant navigator, Captain Thomas Cavendish, when returning from his first voyage round the world, discovered it at about seven or eight leagues distant. By that time, the Island being inhabited, it had received much cultivation and improvement and a beautiful account of its simplicity and pastoral appearance may be found in Richard Hakluyt's "Voyages, Navigations, Traffiques, and Discoueries of the English Nation," Vol. III. Lond. 1600, page 823. St. Helena was subsequently visited by Captain James Lancaster, on the 3d of April, 1593; but so great were the misfortune, both of himself, and some which sailed with him, that the English nation seemed to abandon all attempts at an intercourse with the East Indies, and consequently this Island continued unnoticed. In the year 1600, the East India Company was Incorporated under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth, and four ships were immediately dispatched to the Indies, in which voyage the value of St. Helena, for watering, refitting, and procuring provisions for the vessels, was fully established. The Dutch and Spaniards, who about this time became acquainted with St. Helena, also used it for a similar purpose; and the former nation having expelled the latter from the Island, kept possession of it until 1651, when they left it for the Cape of Good Hope, where they established a Colony. 'I'he English East India Company then settled upon it in the same year; and, on April the 3rd, 1661, a Charter was granted them by King Charles II. permitting them to export all sorts of Provisions, Stores, Ordnance, and Ammunition, free of duty, as well as to send out persons desirous of becoming settlers, and to make such laws as the Governor might think to be requisite. In 1666, the Great Fire of London caused a considerable influx of inhabitants to St. Helena by a number of the ruined families departing thither to commence the world again in another climate. Previous to this, however, in 1665, the Dutch, who probably began to feel the loss of the Island, under cover of a war which was then carrying on between England and Holland, made a successful attack upon it, but before a year had passed, the English were again it possession. Several years afterwards, the Dutch repeated their attempts upon it, and recovered it, but it was almost immediately recaptured by Sir Richard Munden. Some short account of this latter conflict may be found in a single Folio sheet, entitled, "A Relation of the re-taking of the Island of St. Helena, and three Dutch East India Ships, Published by
Authority," Lond. 1673. On the 16th of December in the same year, another Royal Charter was granted to the East India Company, by which they were constituted Lords Proprietors of the Island, with the rights and powers of Sovereignty, and in their possession it has ever since continued. The limits of the present publication will not allow of more than the above general outline of the former state of St. Helena, but an excellent and faithful record of the Island will be found in a History of it by T. H. Brooke, Lond. 1808, Octavo; and several curious and interesting particulars are related in Governor Beatson's Tracts, Lond. 1816, Quarto. It now remains too enter on a more particular detail of the general appearance and natural beauties of the Island, which are exhibited in the following Plates.
St. Helena contains in its extreme length, or from Saddle Point to South West Point, ten miles and a half; its greatest breadth is nearly seven miles, taken from Buttermilk Point to Long range Point; its circumference is about twenty-eight miles, and its whole surface amounts to 30,300 acres. When first discovered, it appears like a rude, abrupt, and dark rock, shaped like a saddle, suddenly emerging from the sea. Vide the General View, Plate 2. Then its features change, and a nearer approach shews its ruggedness altered to a softer outline, by the appearance of the more central eminences clothed in verdure. As the vessel gains upon it, the vast rocks overhanging James Valley, rise and conceal the green summits; then appears the first remarkable feature of the Island, namely, Barn Point, which forms its most Eastern extremity, and which is 2015 feet in altitude, above the level of the sea. From this place the cliffs increase in elevation, and continue uninterrupted, till they terminate at the battery on Buttermilk Point, to which all vessels, including those of the Royal Navy, must send a boat with particulars of their countries, names, and voyages. From the nature of the coast, it is impossible to land Eastward of this Point; and to the West there are batteries planted as far as Fort Munden, the fires of which cross each other in every direction. The line of defence is then continued by the platform and batteries of the town, as well as by several guns which are planted on Ladder Hill. On the windward side of the Island there is neither anchoring ground nor landing place, added to which, the violent surf on the coast would render either useless. Upon doubling Munden's Point, the Town, with its trees and white houses, suddenly appears between two lofty mountains, having a part of Ladder Hill rising in the back ground—Vide Plate 3. In the rock, under Fort Munden, is a cavern, used as a bathing place for the Town; and this, although indifferent in its accommodations, and sometimes impossible to be used, is almost the only place adapted for such a purpose throughout the whole Island. Towards the North Eastern extremity of the Town is one of the landing places, firmly constructed of solid masonry; but from the swell of the sea which flows round Barn Point, the water rises and falls with an undulating motion at every wave, to three, and sometimes to eight feet, which renders the approach to the shore difficult, even to experienced navigators. As these circumstances rendered the watering of ships both dangerous and attended with considerable delay, Lieutenant Pocock, in his "Concise Account of the Island of St. Helena," Lond. 1815, oblong Quarto, p. 2, relates, that for this purpose "anchors have been laid down a considerable distance in the sea, and their cables hove tight and made fast to the shore; to these ship's launches are secured, and the water being conducted by pipes from a considerable distance up the valley, to a reservoir near the end of' the wharf is thence conveyed under the road to the quay head, and by flexible pipes of leather or canvas, into the casks in the boats." Nearer the town is a second landing place, which, as well as the former, is provided with a crane for the embarkation or reception of goods, and along the front of the Town is a long handsome line of fortification, which screens the houses, called the Fleur d'Eau Battery; opposite the valley is good anchorage, from eight to twenty-five fathoms.
James Town, the Metropolis of St. Helena, is situate in a valley bearing the same name, on the North West side of the Island; leaving Mount Rupert to the North East, and Ladder Hill to the North West, which enclose the valley for about two miles and a half behind it. The valley received its present appellation from James, Duke of York, afterwards King James II.; and was first named upon the erection of a Fort in 1665, called James Fort, upon the scite of which the Government House is now erected. From the last-mentioned landing place, the road runs for about three hundred yards, along the base of a perpendicular cliff, to the Barrack of the Outer Town Guard, where a small bastion surrounds the face of the platform, towards the
sea. From this, a drawbridge, which falls over a ditch of considerable magnitude, sunk in the solid rock, leads to the Esplanade, which is flanked on one side with a line of guns, and is planted on the other with a double row of bright green trees, a species of the Indian Banian. Beyond the trees, and partly concealed by them, is the Town wall, the level top of which is used as an evening promenade; and about the centre is an arched gateway, the only entrance allowed to the Island. The Town is then approached beneath a rampart or terrace, which forms one side of a parade of about one hundred feet square; on the left hand side of which, fronting the roadstead, and communicating with the Town wall, are the Government House and the Main Guard room. The former of these is surrounded by a wall with embrasures or battlements, and is called the Castle, containing within it the Governor's House and the Offices of Government; nearest the wall on the same side, are the East India Company's Store-houses, denominated at St. Helena, Godowns; and on the right, further up the valley, are a piece of ground belonging to the Ordnance Store-keeper, and the only respectable house of entertainment in the whole Island. The other side of the square is finished on the left by the Company's pleasure garden, and, on the right, fronting the gateway, by the Church; which is a handsome modern edifice, with a square tower at the South West end. Between the Church, and the pallisade enclosing the gardens, commences the principal street, consisting of twenty-eight neat and well constructed houses, of two stories each. At the other end, the street branches into two smaller; the one leading to the Eastern division of the Island, and the other to the upper part of the valley, where are situated the Barracks, the New Garden, and the Hospital. This street contains several shops, well supplied with Indian and European articles; but the houses, which are in general white-washed, are inferior to those in the lower part of the Town, which is the residence of the principal inhabitants. This part is inhabited chiefly by those whose dependance is upon the fleets which touch at St. Helena, and the buildings consist mostly of Wine-houses for the military and naval population of the Island. The Town of St. Helena also contains a Freemason's Lodge, and a Theatre.
From James Town, an access is gained into the interior of the Island, by roads formed in the sides of Ladder and Rupert Hills; and the ascent is so easy and safe, that carts and oxen pass along without danger or difficulty. The former of these eminences is mounted by an irregular zig-zag path-way, with a stone wall, which commences in the Town where the main street branches, and terminates at the summit of the hill; acting, however, as a line of com-munication between the Town and the Western part of the Island. On the top of Ladder Hill, are the Barracks, and a battery and furnaces for heating shot when red-hot balls are fired from the guns; there are also some mortars planted here, as this place possesses a most wonderful command of the vessel's decks below—Vide Plates 4 and 10. Above Ladder Hill, somewhat to the South East, rises High Knoll, 1903 feet in height above the level of the sea; on the top of which is a circular military building, formerly used by the Dutch as a Citadel, but now abandoned in consequence of the erection of more modern fortifications—Vide Plate 5. The hill of High Knoll is almost entirely barren of pasture, except for a short space up the slope; but in the valley beneath, there is some verdure, (Vide Plate 6,) through which runs a stream that falls down in a cascade over a perpendicular rock, near an estate called the Briars, at the head of James Valley. After the rainy reason, the fall is considerably increased, and it then descends to its receptacle in one continued column, but stained by the earth it washes down; although, as it pours from a height of 300 feet, it usually becomes a shower only before it reaches the cavity which receives the waters. This is one of the very few springs in the Island of St. Helena, which is undiminished by dry weather, and it has even been asserted, that its waters are thought to be enlarged in a season of drought.
From the top of High Knoll, a winding road ascends through a rugged defile to the upper part of Rupert's Ridge; and the view, which in going up it had been confined by the naked and barren sides of the mountains, now spreads out to sea, and inland rocks, hills and vales, country villas, verdant pastures and flower gardens. Rupert's Ridge, is one of the two chains of lofty hills which divide the Island of St. Helena in a curved direction, nearly East and West, from which alternately run vallies and smaller ridges of rocks, chiefly in a Northern or Southern line, into the sea. Continuing along the same road, Diana's Peak, the highest point in the whole
Island is ascended. This eminence, which is elevated nearly 2700 feet above the level of the sea, is situate about the centre of the chain which divides the Island, inclining, however, more to the East, or Rupert's Ridge, than that entitled Sandy Bay Ridge. "From the summit of this peak," says Mr. Brooke, "no point intercepts the horizon; the whole Island is beneath the scope of vision; the ridges and hollows diverging from the chain, are traced to the sea. Houses and plantations diversify the prospect, and the contrast of verdant and naked mountains forcibly strikes the attention, and renders the scene at once novel, picturesque, and majestic." The top and some distance down the sides of Diana's Peak is clothed with trees, which decrease into short brushwood, and that again is exchanged for grass, which covers the remaining part of the declivity to the bottom of the valley, where cattle feed upon the pasture. Wherever the land is considered to be worth enclosing, it is done in St. Helena by stone walls, and for about a mile in this part of the Island, there is a succession of fields thus fenced in, with a few country houses interspersed. After approaching near the head of the valley, the road declines and turning Eastward, leads to Longwood, the official country seat of the Lieutenant Governor, as Plantation House is appropriated to the Governor. As this part of the Island was formerly covered with Gumwood trees, it was denominated the Great Wood; but for many years only a few of them, forming a low and narrow grove, of about a mile in length, have been remaining, which are protected by the East India Company. The place is now equally remarkable for its grand appearance as a plain, and it is sometimes called the Plain of Longwood, or Dead Wood: it contains 1500 acres, is 2000 feet above the level of the sea, and lays in a sloping direction, inclining towards the South East. Longwood House, which stands 1762 feet above the ocean, has, however, since the year 1815, been appropriated to the residence of Napoleon Buonaparte. For his reception, in the September of that year, His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, commanded Earl Bathurst to issue orders for the preparation of his dwelling and furniture. These were carried into execution upon the most splendid plan; and a complete suite of household furniture was made up, sufficient for Buonaparte and his establishment for nearly three years. Every thing was constructed of British materials, and the most delicate attention was paid that no ornament should be used in the decorations which might remind the exile of his former state. The appearance of Longwood House, will be found in Plate 7, and a more particular account of its magnificent fittings up, in the description.
Continuing North-West from Longwood, and turning to the right, out of the road, a foot path leads to the most elevated signal station in the whole Island; from whence approaching fleets are usually seen, the evening before their arrival. From the extreme height of the signal post, which is 2272 feet above the water, ships appear like white specks issuing from the ocean, and not as usual from behind the horizon line. From the signal post, the ascent becomes more steep, especially on the left, the declivity on either side very abrupt, and to gain the highest point of the Peak, requires the use of both hands and feet. From this station, a path practicable for foot passengers only, descends along the northern side of the cross ridge which parts the two principal allies of the Island, standing like a wall, and uniting Diana's Peak to Sandy Bay, or the Western Ridge. Looking Southward from thence, towards Sandy Bay, Diana's Peak stretches down to the sea shore, while its summit continues in a steep ridge, covered with trees and brushwood. Beyond, nearer to the sea, appears a ridge of rock, split and divided into innumerable fissures, rents, and pinnacles of the colour of the darkest pumice stone; but that which is more inland, appears of a rusted crimson tint. The formation of the Island, naturally divided into two great vallies, is particularly well seen from this height. The most Northern of these is that wherein James Town is situate; which, but for the interruption of the waterfall already mentioned, leads upwards to the foot of Diana's Peak. The other is called Sandy Valley, and commences on the South West side of the Island, by Sandy Bay, and also ascends till it terminates at the base of the cross ridge, which separates them. The Island thus divided, has not been united by any artificial way; but a foot path is the only line of communication between the Eastern and Western road. By taking this course, and descending the ridge through the pas-ture, a direct route is obtained, and the numerous sources whence the Town and shipping are supplied with water, are discovered. From the hill side, springs rush out with clear and whole-some streams, and collecting in the valley, run downward till they fall over the rock near the
Briars, about two miles from James Town. These springs are upwards of 2800 feet above the level of the sea, and rise out of a mountain, whose base at the ocean is a black and barren rock. Crossing the rivulet, and ascending to the ridge opposite the Peak, the road communicating with the Western parts of the Island is entered, which leads also to Sandy Valley, and ends in Sandy Bay. On descending from this height. Plantation House, which is the Governor's country seat, lies on the left hand, (Vide Plate 8); from whence the road turns to the Westward, round the base of High Knoll, and down the winding path of Ladder Hill, back to the Town. The whole Island of St. Helena is comprised in a single Parish, and is served by a single Clergyman, but it contains two Churches: one of which is situate in James Town, and the other about half a mile to the South West of Plantation House. Military law is the standing order of this place; for though Civil jurisdiction is considered to be in force, yet it is seldom exercised, and all authority is vested in the Governor. The other Officers of Administration are a Lieutenant- Governor, and a Town-Major, who is at the head of a Military Police. The regular Garrison is composed of a few Companies of Artillery, but every inhabitant of the Island is liable to serve in the Militia force. No stranger is allowed to land, settle, or exercise any profession in this place, without permission. The civil population amounts to somewhat more than 2000 persons.
St. Helena is usually thought, from the materials of which it is formed, to be of a volcanic origin; but from the surveys and soundings made by Captains Austin, Belville, and Cowan, it has been proved that it stands on a large base of rock which runs shelving down to an unknown depth in the ocean. From this circumstance, Governor Beatson supposed, that it might at one period have formed a high mountain on some immense tract of country now sunk in the water, together with the Islands of Ascension, Tristan da Cunha, Gough and Saxemberg, which constitute a chain of 1800 miles in length, and 500 in breadth. The volcanic appearance of St. Helena is accounted for by Mr. Forster, by stating that it has undergone a great and total change, from a volcano and various earthquakes within itself. To support this hypothesis, there are many evidences of internal agitation on the Island; particularly some deep chasms at Turk's Cap and Prosperous Bay, on the South East side, and several dreary and barren conical hills on the North East, between Longwood Plain and the Sea. At the head of Rupert's Valley also, extending from Halley's Mount, North East to Longwood, is an immense hollow of 250 yards in depth, 700 across, and 1000 from East to West. This is denominated by the natives the Devil's Punch-bowl, all the sides of which are steep except the Western, where there is some projecting land, with a house and garden standing upon it. The climate of St. Helena is temperate, and the rains are somewhat proportionally scattered through the twelve months; but the Island is also subject to cloudy days, and the top of Halley's Mount, which stands about the centre of the Eastern side, 2467 feet above the sea, is frequently hidden by clouds. The sides and summits of most of these interior heights are covered with wood; such as the String Tree, the Red Wood, the Dog Wood, and various species of the Cabbage Tree. On Sandy Bay ridge, stands one of the Solidago Integrifolia, or Black Cabbage Tree, which is supposed to he the largest tree in the Island; it measures between 5 and 6 feet in circumference, but in general the wood does not arrive to a size sufficient for building. Neither corn nor vegetables succeed well in St. Helena, but fruit of some kinds is fine and plentiful. Cattle and sheep are chiefly brought from the Cape of Good Hope, as there is not a sufficiency of pasture greatly to increase the breed on the Island; but fish is in great variety and plenty, as about 76 kinds are caught in the sea round it.
EXPLANATORY LIST OF THE PLATES.
PORTRAIT OF JAMES WATHEN, ESQ. OF HEREFORD. To face the Title.
No. 1. BURIAL PLACE OF NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE. On the Title-Page.
This is situate in a place called Haine's Valley, or the Devil's Punch-bowl, near Hut's Gate. Vide the foregoing description, Page 7. It is distant from Longwood about a mile and a half in a strait direction, but the common road forms a circle of about three miles. Before the Funeral, which took place on Wednesday, the 9th of May, 1821, one hundred men were employed to cut a direct descent to the grave. The tomb is in the vicinity of some willows, and a spring of water which were favorites with Buonaparte; who pointed out this spot for his burial place, soon after his arrival on the Island. A centinel is constantly on duty at the grave.
No. 2. GENERAL VIEW OF THE ISLAND OF ST. HELENA.
This was taken from the deck of the Hope East Indiaman, on approaching the Island from the North East, on a homeward bound East India voyage. To the right appears the roadstead before James Town, with vessels at anchor; and beyond is part of Ladder Hill. Mount Rupert encloses the bay on the left, and Sugar-loaf Point finishes the view on that side. The intermediate heights are different portions of that ridge of mountains which divides the Island to the North East.
No. 3. SUGAR-LOAF HILL.
Viewed from the North West. On the summit appears a signal Tower, with a flagstaff elevated 2272 feet above the water. Beneath, on the left, is Munden's Battery; and on the right are the wall, Governor's House, Town, and Church of St. Helena. Farther to the right is Ladder Hill, with its zig-zag ascent, and the central eminence is Diana's Peak.
No. 4. LADDER HILL.
This view was taken about half way down the winding road, looking over to the Town. The Indiamen are seen at anchor below, towards the right, and on the summit of Ladder Hill are the Barracks. The opposite rock is part of Mount Rupert. Vide the foregoing description, Page 5.
No. 5. FORT ON HIGH KNOLL.
The building on the summit of this eminence; as already stated in Page 6, was erected by the Dutch as a Citadel; but is now used as the general Powder Magazine, having on the right a wooden Barrack, where an Officer and his party are always stationed. The descent from High Knoll to the top of Ladder Hill, is by a steep and rugged pumice-stone road. On the left hand, at the base of the mountain, appears a part of the Barracks at the top of Ladder Hill, shown in the last Plate; and on the right, at the lower part of the engraving, are the tops of some Pine trees in the plantation round the Governor's House, which lies on the left hand, on the road to High Knoll. The mountain appearing over the slope, is Sugar-loaf Hill. Vide Plate 3.
No. 6. VIEW FROM HIGH KNOLL.
This was drawn from the Battery, on the summit of High Knoll, and exhibits an extensive prospect in the cultivated valley beneath. Immediately in front is Diana's Peak, with part of Halley's Mount on the right, below which appear Plantation House, and the country Church of St. Helena.
No. 7. LONGWOOD HOUSE.
The late residence of Napoleon Buonaparte, where he arrived in the letter part of 1815, and at which he died on May the 5th, 1821. The situation, and other particulars concerning Longwood, have already been given at Page 6; and a very brief description of the building is all that remains to be added. The present erection was formed in timber framework at Woolwich, by the Architect for the Ordnance department, to be erected at St. Helena. It is designed in the cottage style, and contains 24 rooms, the general size of which is 25 feet by 18. The length of the house in front is about 120 feet; and it contains 16 windows with an open corridore. The depth of the building is 100 feet, and the back is also ornamented with a corridore. It is two stories in height, and the right hand wing was appropriated to Buonaparte, In the centre stands the Drawing-room, coloured of various shades of green, and arabesque gold panels; with curtains of light silk taboret, of Pomona green, and velvet borders edged with gold coloured silk twist. Above them is a matted gold cornice, to conceal the rings and curtain rod, and the top of the room is finished by a cream coloured ceiling. The carpet is of Brussels texture, of various shades of brown, olive, and amber. The furniture consists of an elegant oak centre table; pier table, inlaid with a slab of Verd Antique Mona marble; splendid pier glass, with a frame of Buhl and ebony; chairs of British oak; two Greek sofas and footstools ornamented with Or Moulu; a piano forte; and chandeliers and candelabri to light the apartment, The Dining-room is next in the suite, the fittings up for which are of a lavender tint, and the curtains of silk, with a black border and gold coloured silk lace fringe. The carpet and walls are of the same lilac hue, as well as the coverings for the chairs. The furniture consists of a fine oaken Dining-table, capable of accommodating from six to fourteen persons; a side-board, peculiarly made for holding the Imperial plate, with the wine coolers constructed of Bronze and rich wood. Adjoining the Dining-room is the Library, which is furnished in the Etruscan style, with several dwarf book-cases; a Library table with desks and drawers, and curtains of a new cotton material, having the appearance of cloth. The Sitting-room is ornamented with an ethereal blue carpet shaded with black, and several ebony cabinets inlaid with brass. In the Bed-room is a high canopy Bedstead, enclosing a silken musquito net, and hung with furniture of lilac persian edged with gold coloured fringe. The Bath is lined with marble, and made to admit hot or cold water. The other wing of Longwood House contained spacious apartments for Buonaparte's suite, with servant's offices and store-rooms in the rear. The Kitchen is a detached building, yet convenient to the Dining-room. The materials for this erection, together with the elegant furniture, table services, dresses, and plate presented to Buonaparte, by the noble munificence of the British government, amounted to 500 tons in weight, and were contained in 400 packages. A number of artists were also sent with them to fit out the Establishment.
No. 8. PLANTATION HOUSE.
The Governor's country residence, situate about three miles from James Town. It was erected in the years 1791-2, and is surrounded by a fine plantation, not only of indigenous productions of the Island, but also of plants and trees from distant and opposite climes. The Mimosa of New South Wales, the Pine of Northern Europe, and the Bamboo of India, are here flourishing in the same soil. The country Church of St. Helena is seen to the right hand.
No. 9. ROCKS, CALLED LOT AND HIS DAUGHTERS.
This romantic view was taken from the flagstaff on the small battery of the Signal House, above Major Doveton's seat, about four miles from James Town. The rocks stand at the South West point of the Island, at a part entitled Lot's Wife's Beach.
No. 10. BARRACKS ABOVE LADDER HILL.
The situation of these, and of the Tower on High Knoll above, has been already described and exhibited; it remains only to be stated, that this view was taken in a North East direction on quitting the Island.
No.2. The Island of St. Helena.
No.3. Sugar-loaf Hill, St. Helena.
No. 4. Ladder Hill, St. Helena.
No. 5. Fort on High knoll, St. Helena.
No. 6. View from High knoll, St. Helena.
No. 7. Longwood House, St. Helena.
No. 8. Plantation House, St. Helena.
No. 9. Rocks, called Lot and his Daughters, St. Helena.
No. 10. Barracks on Ladder Hill, St. Helena.
Notes about this version of Wathen:
The title page and plates were scanned from an original copy of Wathen. The scanned images have been resized. The text is exactly reproduced from an original copy of Wathen.
Contributed by Barry Weaver, from whom higher resolution images (full size - very large files!) of the plates and a MS WORD version of the text can be obtained.
Details of the original:
Wathen, T.E. A Series of Views Illustrative of the Island of St. Helena. Clay, London, 1821.
Text: Advertisement (1 leaf, verso with 5 lines of text and a wood engraving of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honour): Descriptive Account (p. 3 to 7): Explanatory List of the plates (p. 8 with imprint J. Johnson, Typ. at foot).
Plates: Uncoloured lithograph of Mr Wathen signed A. J. Oliver A.R.A. Pinxt; T. Bragg Sculpt; imprint Private Plate: Engraved title page: Nine coloured aquatints signed Drawn by James Wathen Esqr.; Arranged by E.W.; Engraved by I. Clark; imprint London, 1821, Published for the Proprietor, by T. Clay, Ludgate Hill, Robt Jennings, Poultry, & Ino Major, Skinner Street.
Number 314 in Abbey.
Abbey, J.R. Travel in Aquatint and Lithography, 1770-1860, from the Library of J.R. Abbey: Vol. I, World, Europe, Africa. Curwen Press, London, 1956.
Last updated: 19 December, 2011